Andrews, D., Zinger, I., Hoge, R. D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P. and Cullen, F. T. (1990). Does Correctional Treatment Work? A Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Meta-Analysis.
Austin, J., Johnson K., & Naro, W. (2000). Process Evaluation of the Michigan Department of Corrections' Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Program,
U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
The Michigan program model included a six-month in-custody component guided by a cognitively based curriculum, followed by a mandatory 12-month aftercare phase. The significant support from the facility's warden was one of the greatest assets of the program. Findings indicated the program needed more specific eligibility criteria, that modifications in the design due to space and staff shortages have significantly reduced the hours and days of treatment, and complicated interagency relationships were a significant impediment to service delivery.
A study of a 160-bed secure facility operated by the Ohio Department of Youth Services. Findings showed that participants had many risk factors, including school problems, antisocial companions, poor use of leisure time, significant criminal histories, and serious substance abuse problems. Areas identified for RSAT program improvement were consistency of services, treatment matching, consistency in the application of the behavioral management system, and quality assurance.
A study of Dayton Ohio RSAT program. The TC Monitoring tool indicated that most of the primary elements of the therapeutic community model had been implemented. All residents received substance abuse education and relapse prevention services throughout their stay. Of the 31 cases for which follow-up information on post-release performance was available, only 18 (58.1%) participated in follow-up drug/alcohol treatment.
An Ohio medium security prison RSAT evaluation.
A summary of the three Ohio RSAT programs studied by the authors.
This report summarizes the results of a national evaluation of RSAT and process evaluations of 12 local sites across the country.
Using a matched comparison group as well as comparing completer and non-completers, researchers evaluated this jail RSAT program on Massachusetts’ Cape Cod. About 40% of RSAT participants complete the program; 40% are released early without completing, and 20% are returned to the jail’s general population because of noncompliant behavior. Early release (a jail, not RSAT decision) appears to result in higher recidivism, even though the offenders' LSI-R inventory scores indicate that about two-thirds of them could be expected to complete the program. On the basis of the outcome evaluation, expansion of the program is worthwhile. The report suggests several steps to further enhance the program.
Note: The treatment services in this RSAT program were provided by AdCare Criminal Justice Services, a RSAT-TTA provider.
The Rhode Island Department of Corrections minimum-security unit for men RSAT evaluation. The program is based on a relapse prevention model and centered on an academic format. It teaches inmates how to adapt in the community and focus on productive and healthy lifestyles. The major obstacle to success in the program centered on the reading level of material and some of its content. The focus on behavior was a feature most closely associated with inmate success. Inmates were particularly positive about engaging them when offered a venue to explore their own issues and ways to address them. Offenders who were successful in either program usually also identified a particular staff member with whom they had established a relationship.
The New Jersey RSAT program report.
This study evaluated implementation of a Florida prison RSAT program. The evaluation recommends that early in implementation, responsibility should be assigned for active oversight at a sufficiently high level in the department to ensure timely and appropriate actions by each division and staff category for which the new program will result in new or additional responsibilities.
Making this annotated listing of integrated information and training resources on women and girls accessible to administrators, program managers, training departments, security staff, case managers and parole and probation departments can have an immediate positive effect. It can assist them in locating additional resources relevant to women and girls that exist across human service disciplines.
Background: Rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to violence among incarcerated males and females in the US are exponentially higher than rates among the general population; yet, abrupt detoxification from substances, the pervasive authoritative presence and sensory and environmental trauma triggers can pose a threat to individual and institutional stability during incarceration. Objective: The authors explore the unique challenges and promises of trauma-informed correctional care and suggest strategies for administrative support, staff development, programming, and relevant clinical approaches. Method: A review of literature includes a comparison of gendered responses, implications for men’s facilities, and the compatibility of trauma recovery goals and forensic programming goals. Results: Trauma-informed care demonstrates promise in increasing offender responsivity to evidence-based cognitive behavioral programming that reduces criminal risk factors and in supporting integrated programming for offenders with substance abuse and co-occurring disorders. Conclusions: Incorporating trauma recovery principles into correctional environments requires an understanding of criminal justice priorities, workforce development, and specific approaches to screening, assessment, and programming that unify the goals of clinical and security staff.
The Minnesota Department of Corrections (MNDOC) provides prison-based chemical dependency (CD) treatment for offenders who are chemically abusive or dependent. The primary goal of in-prison treatment programs is to reduce the recidivism rates of offenders with CD issues once they reenter the community.
This was a study of Georgia’s seven RSAT programs operating at four prisons (Scott, Macon, Calhoun, and Pulaski) with a total of 310 beds available for program participants. Program benefits showed lower rates of institutional misconduct and significant attitudinal and behavioral change. Weaknesses focused on the selection and referral processes and the lack of sufficient aftercare services upon graduation and release. There was a lack of communication between various entities within the Georgia correctional department and a lack of knowledge concerning the RSAT program among diagnostic and classification staff. Specific program recommendations included: (1) address deficiencies with the MIS system allowing more complete and comprehensive data collection, retrieval, and reporting features; (2) implement a standardized system of identifying inmates’ degree of substance use and involvement; (3) refine and simplify the referral process; (4) address and resolve issues between various GDC units and the parole authorities; and (5) substantially increase the opportunities available for aftercare upon release.
Mulvey, E., Schubert, C., and Chassin, L. (2010). Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior Among Serious Adolescent Offenders.
Juvenile Justice Bulletin, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
As of July 2004, there were 300 RSAT programs in all 50 states and five US territories. This report describes program components, highlights examples of successful jail-based RSAT programs, and summarizes national evaluation and state-level evaluations. Concludes with state-by-state RSAT activities.
Rossman, S., Roman, J., Zweig, J., Rempel, M., & Lindquist, C. (2001). The Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation: Executive Summary,
Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center.
Stohr, M., Hemmens, C., Buane, D., Dayley, J., Gornik, M., Kjaer, K., & Noon, C. (2001). Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners (RSAT) Partnership Process Evaluation, Final Report,
U.S. Justice Department, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
A process evaluation of the South Idaho Correctional Institution RSAT Program that integrated three treatment modalities including cognitive self-change and behavioral, 12-step programming set within a therapeutic community targeting substance-abusing parole violators.
Stohr, M., Hemmens, C., Buane, D., Dayley, J., Gornik, M., Kjaer, K., & Noon, C. (2003). Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners Breaking the Drug-Crime Cycle Among Parole Violators, NIJ Research for Practice,
U.S. Justice Department, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Summarizes the earlier research findings of the Idaho RSAT program completed in 2001 as a special NIJ report.
Virginia provided the first national test of applying the RSAT conditions within the context of a jail environment. This process evaluation examined the implementation of the RSAT program in each site by observing the therapeutic community program in the jail, conducting structured interviews with treatment, correctional, and administrative staff members, and tracking client progress through both the treatment and criminal justice systems.
This process evaluation examined the implementation of the Maryland RSAT program by observing the therapeutic community program in the prison, conducting structured interviews with treatment and administrative staff members, and tracking client progress through both the treatment and criminal justice systems.
This continues the evaluation begun in Klein, A. & Wilson, D. (2002). Outcome Evaluation of a Residential Substance Abuse Program: Barnstable House of Corrections. It finds that RSAT completers continued to do significantly better in the community in terms of lower rearrests by 14 to 18% than non-completers, including lower risk non-completers as measured by LSIR. This held up for the three years studied.